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Chewing gum improves academic performance



This article seems funny though but I am tempted to do this write-up due to the many female students I have seen who are glued to their gum. It appears that some are addicted to their gum and cannot do away with it. But the question is why the health benefits of chewing gum are? 

What is chewing Gum?

The Health line writer notes that chewing gum is a soft, rubbery substance that’s designed to be chewed but not swallowed. Helen West (2021) article further held that the chewing gum recipes can differ based on brands, but they all have the following basic ingredients:

  • Gum. This is the nondigestible, rubbery base used to give gum its chewy quality.
  • Resin: This is usually added to strengthen gum and hold it together.
  • Fillers. Fillers, such as calcium carbonate or talc, are used to give gum texture.
  • Preservatives. These are added to extend shelf life. The most popular choice is an organic compound called butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
  • Softeners. These are used to retain moisture and prevent the gum from hardening. They can include waxes like paraffin or vegetable oils.
  • Sweeteners. Cane sugar, beet sugar, and corn syrup are popular sweeteners. Sugar-free gums use sugar alcohols such as xylitol or artificial sweeteners such as aspartame.
  • Flavorings. Natural or synthetic flavorings are added to give gum the desired taste.

Most chewing gum manufacturers keep their exact recipes a secret. They often refer to their specific combination of gum, resin, filler, softeners, and antioxidants as their “gum base.” All ingredients used in the processing of chewing gum have to be “food grade” and classified as fit for human consumption.

Chewing Gum, Science

Reduces Stress and boosts memory

Five studies (Hirano and Onozuka, 2015; Allen and Smith, 2015; Chen et al. 2015; Hirano and Onozuka, 2014; Hirano et al. 2013) demonstrate that chewing gum enhances brain function, including alertness, memory, understanding, and decision-making.

Also, a recent randomized controlled trial by Yaman-Sözbir et al. (2019) established that students who chewed gum over 7 or 19 days had reduced scores for depression, anxiety, and stress compared to those who did not. Those who chewed gum also achieved greater academic success.  These studies are beginning to wow me to start chewing as well.  Check this one as well: Tucha and Simpson,(2011) also found that chewing gum could provide a bit of a distraction when performing any task at the start but could help you focus for longer periods.

Another, Onyper et al. (2011) found an impact of chewing gum during the first 15–20 minutes of a task.  It is interesting how just chewing gum improves memory. Some say that memory improvement is due to increased blood flow to the brain caused by chewing gum.

Two more studies (Smith et al. 2012; Smith, A, 2013) also confirmed that chewing gum could decrease stress and increase feelings of attentiveness.

In a small study (Smith and Woods, 2012) on university students, chewing gum for 2 weeks reduced participants’ feelings of stress, especially about academic workload. As to why this is so in academic performances.  Two studies (Kubo et al. 2015; Konno et al. 2016) explained that it has to do with the art of chewing which has been linked to reduced levels of stress hormones such as cortisol.

Though Allen et al. 2015 study found that chewing gum improves memory only at the time of chewing the gum.  Smith, A(2016) on the other hand, found that the impact is more on those who chew throughout the day.

Chewing gum improves weight loss

Studies found that Chewing gum could benefit those trying to lose weight. This is because it’s both sweet and low in calories, giving you a sweet taste without negatively affecting your diet

Two studies(Xu et al. 2015; Lasschuijt et al. 2020) found that chewing gum could reduce appetite, which may avert overeating.

One small study(Park et al. 2016) also found that chewing gum between meals reduced feelings of hunger and decreased consumption of high-carb snacks in the afternoon.

Another small study(Kanno et al. 2019) found that chewing gum while walking could help burn more calories.

Other studies reported different findings. For instance, two studies(Mattes and Considine, 2013; Shikany et al. 2012) found that chewing gum does not affect appetite or energy intake over a day.

Though, one study(Swoboda and Temple, 2013)  also held that those who chewed gum were less likely to snack on fruit.  This could be because the participants were chewing minty gum before eating, which made the fruit taste bad.

Finally, Kresge and  Melanson(2015) agreed that chewing gum may enhance metabolic rate.

Chewing gum improves breath, and protects teeth

Chewing sugar-free gum could help protect your teeth from cavities.

It’s better for your teeth than regular, sugar-sweetened gum. This is because sugar feeds the “bad” bacteria in your mouth, which can damage your teeth.

However, some sugar-free gums are better than others when it comes to dental health.

Xu et al. (2015) found that chewing gum sweetened with the sugar alcohol xylitol is more effective than other sugar-free gums at averting tooth decay.  Two studies (Takeuchi et al. 2018; Chavan et al. 2015) explained that xylitol averts the growth of the bacteria that cause tooth decay and bad breath.

One study (Bahador et al. 2012) found that chewing xylitol-sweetened gum reduced the number of bad bacteria in the mouth by up to 75%.

Finally, Wessel et al.(2016)  held that chewing gum after a meal increases saliva flow thus washing away harmful sugars and food debris, both of which feed bacteria in the mouth.


Apart from the numerous benefits, chewing too much gum could cause some unwanted side effects. Moderation is always the key to everything.

Sugar-free gums contain laxatives and FODMAPs

The sugar alcohols used to sweeten sugar-free gum have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. In one study, Liauw and Saibil (2019) found that chewing lots of sugar-free gum could cause digestive distress and diarrhea.  Furthermore, all sugar alcohols are FODMAPs, which can cause digestive problems for people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Sugar-sweetened gum is bad for dental and metabolic health

Chewing gum sweetened with sugar is bad for the teeth. For instance, Rugg-Gunn, A(2013) explained that sugar is digested by the bad bacteria in the mouth, causing an increase in the amount of plaque on the teeth and tooth decay over time.

Additionally, Bray and  Popkin, (2014) also held that eating too much sugar is also linked with several health conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes

Chewing gum too much causes problems with the jaw

Frequent chewing could lead to a jaw problem called temporomandibular disorder (TMD), which causes pain when you chew. Two studies (Tabrizi et al. 2014; Correia et al. 2014) found a link between excessive chewing and TMD.

Chewing gum, headaches

Lippi et al. (2015) review suggests that frequently chewing gum could cause headaches in those prone to migraine episodes and tension-type headaches, though more research is needed.

Take Home

The recommended is sugar-free gum made with xylitol.  However, for those with IBS. Sugar-free gum contains FODMAPs, which can cause digestive problems. Also, choose a gum sweetened with a low-calorie sweetener such as stevia. Chewing gum is generally safe, always read the label.


Prof. Nyarkotey has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations to justify his write-ups.  My articles are for educational purposes and do not serve as Medical advice for Treatment. I aim to educate the public about evidence-based scientific Naturopathic Therapies.

The writer is a Professor of Naturopathic Healthcare, a Medical Journalist, and a science writer. President, Nyarkotey College of Holistic Medicine & Technology (NUCHMT), African Naturopathic Foundation, Ashaiman, Ghana. E. mail:


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  • Mattes RD, Considine RV. Oral processing effort, appetite and acute energy intake in lean and obese adults. Physiol Behav. 2013 Aug 15;120:173-81. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Aug 15. PMID: 23954409; PMCID: PMC3811075.
  • Shikany JM, Thomas AS, McCubrey RO, Beasley TM, Allison DB. Randomized controlled trial of chewing gum for weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Mar;20(3):547-52. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.336. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22076595.
  • Swoboda C, Temple JL. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake. Eat Behav. 2013 Apr;14(2):149-56. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.011. Epub 2013 Feb 13. PMID: 23557811.
  • Kresge DL, Melanson K. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Apr;40(4):401-6. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0232. Epub 2014 Dec 18. PMID: 25794237.
  • Xu J, Xiao X, Li Y, Zheng J, Li W, Zhang Q, Wang Z. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men. Endocrine. 2015 Sep;50(1):93-8. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0566-1. Epub 2015 Mar 11. PMID: 25758865; PMCID: PMC4546692.
  • Takeuchi K, Asakawa M, Hashiba T, Takeshita T, Saeki Y, Yamashita Y. Effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the oral microbiota. J Oral Sci. 2018 Dec 27;60(4):588-594. doi: 10.2334/josnusd.17-0446. Epub 2018 Nov 15. PMID: 30429438.
  • Chavan S, Lakashminarayan N, Kemparaj U. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children. Int J Prev Med. 2015 May 22;6:44. doi: 10.4103/2008-7802.157543. PMID: 26097673; PMCID: PMC4455121.
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  • Wessel SW, van der Mei HC, Maitra A, Dodds MW, Busscher HJ. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2016 Oct;13(10):1421-31. doi: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1193154. Epub 2016 Jun 3. PMID: 27223231.
  • Liauw S, Saibil F. Sorbitol: Often forgotten cause of osmotic diarrhea. Can Fam Physician. 2019 Aug;65(8):557-558. PMID: 31413027; PMCID: PMC6693595.
  • Rugg-Gunn A. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease. Acta Med Acad. 2013 Nov;42(2):117-30. doi: 10.5644/ama2006-124.80. PMID: 24308392.
  • Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes Care. 2014 Apr;37(4):950-6. doi: 10.2337/dc13-2085. PMID: 24652725; PMCID: PMC9514031.
  • Tabrizi R, Karagah T, Aliabadi E, Hoseini SA. Does gum chewing increase the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in individuals with gum chewing habits? J Craniofac Surg. 2014 Sep;25(5):1818-21. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000000993. PMID: 25203577.
  • Correia D, Real Dias MC, Castanho Moacho A, Crispim P, Luis H, Oliveira M, Carames J. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing. Gen Dent. 2014 Nov-Dec;62(6):e33-6. PMID: 25369399.
  • Lippi G, Cervellin G, Mattiuzzi C. Gum-Chewing and Headache: An Underestimated Trigger of Headache Pain in Migraineurs? CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14(6):786-90. doi: 10.2174/1871527314666150225143105. PMID: 25714969.
Eye witness to any social issue, occurance or any form of information you would like to share, kindly send via Email : or WhatsApp : 0553506856 / 0246319949


10 ways women hurt men knowingly



Men, if you think you’ve got women all figured out, prepare for some surprises. Women are complex beings, and they can be quite unpredictable.

The person you think you know today may not be the same person you see tomorrow; and that’s just the way it is.

Women crave attention, love, and lots of it. They want to feel noticed and appreciated all the time. If you slip up on this even once, then you’re calling for trouble.

While some women may unintentionally do things that hurt their partners, others plan to do so deliberately. They set out to hurt your feelings and disrupt your life.

Here are 10 intentional things women do to hurt their men:

1. Complaining despite an honest effort

One way some women intentionally hurt their men is by complaining when their partners are genuinely making an effort.

This is often done to annoy or provoke a reaction. It may stem from a desire for more attention or a way to assert control within the relationship.

2. Not being present in the present moments

Frequently using a phone or being distracted when on a date is a behaviour that can hurt a man’s feelings.

It communicates a lack of interest or attentiveness, potentially causing emotional pain or frustration.

Some women would rather do this than tell the man she’s not interested.

3. Withholding compliments

Some women refrain from offering compliments even when their partners genuinely deserve them.

This can be a way to undermine a man’s self-esteem or keep him seeking validation, thus asserting a sense of power.

4. Not initiating intimacy

Intentionally avoiding initiating intimacy, especially when aware of their partner’s desires, can be a way to control the emotional dynamics in the relationship.

This may create a sense of longing and frustration in the man.

5. Hiding things, like food

Hiding things, such as food, can be a manipulative tactic used to gain financial advantage.

By creating a situation where the man believes there is scarcity, some women may attempt to extract more money from him.

6. Setting him up for trouble

In some extreme cases, women may resort to involving others, such as authorities or gangs, to harm their partners as a form of punishment or to ‘teach them a lesson.

This action can have severe consequences for all parties involved.

7. Taking everything when separating

A common occurrence, especially in urban settings, is when a woman packs up everything in the house and leaves the home without notice.

This act is often intended to leave the man feeling helpless, confused, and emotionally devastated.

8. Leaving a young child behind

In moments of intense disagreement, some women may leave a very young child, perhaps a month or two old, with their partner.

This act aims to assert control or inflict emotional pain, suggesting that the man needs her more than he thinks.

9. Taking all the children away

Without proper communication, some women may abruptly take all the children and leave, making it difficult for the man to maintain a relationship with his kids.

This action is intended to exert power and control over the situation.

10. Disrespect in front of friends

In the company of friends, some individuals may intentionally disrespect their partners.

This could be a way of seeking validation from friends, gaining support for their perspective, or demonstrating control over the relationship.

Eye witness to any social issue, occurance or any form of information you would like to share, kindly send via Email : or WhatsApp : 0553506856 / 0246319949
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‘Smoking shisha can cause breast cancer’ – Doctor cautions



Popular doctor, Dr. Aproko, has issued precautions to women who are fond of smoking shisha.

Dr. Aproko has stressed that contrary to popular belief that shisha soothes one’s mood, it can have major health implications on individuals, particularly, women.

According to him, the use of Shisha may cause cell distortions in the body, raising the chance of cancer-causing mutations.

He argues that these flavors frequently contain chemicals that are harmful to one’s body.

Tackling other health concerns including obesity, Aproko Doctor also advised that walking is a successful and healthy method of losing weight.

He has asked individuals to walk instead of taking buses or cars because regular, long walks can aid in weight loss.

Eye witness to any social issue, occurance or any form of information you would like to share, kindly send via Email : or WhatsApp : 0553506856 / 0246319949
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#NoBraDay-What is its significance?



October 13th is celebrated annually as National ‘No Bra Day’ in a bid to promote body positivity and breast cancer awareness.

What began as a social media campaign to promote self-love has transformed into a meaningful movement urging women to go braless for the day, emphasising the importance of breast cancer education, self-examination, and preventive measures.

Originally observed on July 9, 2011, National No Bra Day has found its permanent home on October 13 to align with Breast Cancer Month. This observance serves as a reminder for women to prioritize their breast health and engage in conversations about early detection and prevention.

The core mission of No Bra Day is to create awareness surrounding breast cancer, fostering a culture of understanding and support.

Women are encouraged to embrace the day by forgoing bras, sparking conversations about breast health, and advocating for regular self-examinations and screenings.

Breast cancer remains a significant global health concern, and initiatives like National No Bra Day play a crucial role in educating and empowering individuals.

By leveraging the power of social media and community participation, this movement continues to gain traction each year, amplifying its impact on breast cancer awareness.

National No Bra Day collectively contributes to the ongoing dialogue about breast health through shared experiences and open conversations with the aim to break down stigmas, encourage early detection, and support those affected by breast cancer.

Eye witness to any social issue, occurance or any form of information you would like to share, kindly send via Email : or WhatsApp : 0553506856 / 0246319949
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